3. Health and social welfare in prisons in the Republic of Kazakhstan – women with HIV and the role of the social worker
Historically, social workers have constantly have been provided services to those directly or indirectly affected by HIV. Over time, their roles and services have changed significantly and expanded. According to the UN, Kazakhstan shows negative dynamics: HIV spreads 'rapidly.' Over the past 20 years, the number of new HIV cases in the region has increased by 43 percent, and AIDSrelated deaths by 32 percent.
In what ways can we improve the well-being of a person in places of deprivation of the freedom of the Kazakhstan Republic? The study was carried out in a sociological survey and an analysis of international data. We interviewed 75 former female prisoners, focus groups, employees of the penitentiary service and AIDS centers.
Drug use in prisons is a serious problem for the prevention of HIV. People with drug problems in the criminal justice system are often repeated offenders and make up a significant proportion of prisoners. Women and girls are a minority among the total number of prisoners around the world, according to rough estimates, from 2 to 9%. Women are on the verge of physical survival and psychological pressure due to the conditions of women's detention in places of deprivation of liberty. One of the female criminals' most characteristic personality traits is their maladaptation in modern society. That is why the re-socialization of women after liberation is one of the state's priorities in the field of social protection of citizens.